雅思阅读中的因果关系你能掌握吗?

2017-09-30编辑: Eileen来自: 环球教育

  今天环球教育狄鑫磊老师为大家分析一下常考逻辑关系——因果关系。

  有因才有果,因和果是共存的,因此任何表示“因”或“果”的词都会形成一个因果逻辑,经常以“A导致B”对应“B反应出A”或“B的出现是因为A”的形式来出题。

  常见的表达式有:

  原因:because,due to ,originate from……

  结果:result in,lead to, therefore, contribute to, breed ,generate…等…我们眼神儿要好,反应要快,迅速把这些小学水平的词汇联系起来。

  我们来看一个剑10 test4中的判断题:

  原文:

  But if silent genes degrade within 6 to 10 million years, how can long-lost traits be reactivated? The answer may lie in the womb. Early embryos of many species develop ancestral features. Later in development these features disappear thanks to developmental program. If for any reason this does not happen, the ancestral feature may not disappear, leading to evolutionary throwbacks.

  题目:Evolutionary throwbacks might be caused by developmental problems in the womb.

  这道题目的定位词很容易划出来womb,evolutionary throwbacks专有名词的原词重现,但这时会发现原文中有大量的词不认识,womb,long-lost traits ,embryos……生物类的文章,有些专有名词不认识也属正常,想翻译出句子再来做题就有些困难了,但好在这道题原文题目中存在因果关系,关键是你能不能发现它。

  原文说:答案在womb里……thanks to(表示因,意思同because)developmental program……, if not…,not…双重否定表肯定,leading to(表示果) evolutionary throwbacks,

  也就是说,因为developmental program,导致了evolutionary throwbacks。题目意思比较好理解,evolutionary throwbacks是因为developmental problems。因此这道题目,选True。

  因果逻辑覆盖各个题型,除了刚才的判断题,接下来我们看一道填空题。

  原文:

  Half the world's 6800 languages are likely to vanish within two generations…省略一百字…Isolation breeds linguistic diversity: as a result, the world is peppered with languages spoken by only a few people.

  题目:There are currently approximately 6800 languages in the world. This great variety of languages came about largely as a result of geographical _____ .

  先根据6800,定位到大概段落。接下来我们需要从空格贴身词汇找起,很多同学会定位geographical,常规做法是可以定位空前形容词的,但只通过一个词来定位毕竟不稳,我建议大家可以每题划出两组定位词,两点确定一条直线,多点定位才更稳。我们继续从空格往前找,会发现variety of languages语言多样性,但这篇文章主题是语言,因此这组词会在文中多次出现。这题的关键在于as a result of geographical _____,让我们填写一个原因。我们可以看到原文中的as a result, 我们应该都知道这两个词组的区别,as a result,后面跟结果,因此我们应该往前寻找答案。前面会看到Isolation breeds linguistic diversity,句子中依旧有一个表示因果逻辑的词汇,breed。可能很多同学只知道“繁殖”“喂养”的意思,其实这个词的根本含义是“导致”的意思,靠死记硬背所谓的熟词辟义恐怕很难解决词义理解问题,这在我们各个班型课上会详细讲解。回到题目,原因导致结果,因此表示“原因”的答案只剩唯一词,isolation“地理隔离”。我们可以根据题目中的另一组替换词linguistic diversity对应variety of languages进一步确认答案。

  我们再来看一道选择题,在单选题目中,除了细节的替换,最常考查的就是题干与选项间的因果逻辑,这是剑6 test4中的题目,

  原文:

  Until recently, not much was known about the topic, and little help was available to teachers to deal with bullying. Perhaps as a consequence, schools would often deny the problem. “There is no bullying at this school” has been a common refrain, almost certainly untrue. Fortunately more schools are now saying, “there is not much bullying here, but when it occurs we have a clear policy for dealing with it

  题目:The writer thinks that the declaration “there is no bullying at this school”

  A. is no longer true in many schools

  B. was not in fact made by many schools

  C. reflected the school’s lack of concern

  D. reflected a lack of knowledge and resources.

  单选题通常很好定位,但是却总是选不对。根据引号内容定位回原文后,多数同学什么都没想,直接开始往下找,那永远也找不到正确答案了。我们来分析一下题目,题目问我们引号内容说明了什么,我们回到原文会看到“as a consequence,” 意思同“as a result,”,原文写道:句子1,and句子2,导致了题干问的“there is no bullying at this school”,引号内容自然是反应出了句子1,and句子2,因此选择D。如果能看出这一组对应的因果逻辑,这个题目就不会找错了方向。如果有足够的单词量,我们可以用替换词验证一下答案,not much was known对应lack of knowledge,little help(没什么可用来帮助的)对应lack of resources,我们更加可以确定是答案D。

  至于另三个选项为什么错,我们在这里就不多讲了,关注我们的相关内容,以后会有讲解。

  以上三道题目都是错误率比较高的题目,通过逻辑词+替换词来分析,好像也并不是那么难。我们要做的就是了解出题的套路,剩下的就是背下基础词汇,并列练好眼神儿能找到它们。

  希望同学们多多努力,早日考出成绩。

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