只背单词就能搞定雅思阅读?

2017-06-29编辑: Eileen来自: 环球教育

  很多同学常抱怨,阅读速度太慢。你一个字一个字地看当然慢了,环球颜王团杨帆老师建议大家每句话都要看,因为任何一句话都可能出考题,但谁让你每个单词都看了,看有用的单词就可以了。教大家几个快速阅读的方法。

  1.只读句子主干

  一个句子只有一个谓语动词,因此一个句子就只讲一件事,并且这个谓语动词是在表达主语发生的事情,所以只需要把握好句子的“主语+谓语”就可以把握住这个句子发生的事情,同时大家可以快速比对这件“事情”和题目要求我们定位的内容是否一致,如果一致,再精读,不一致就过掉,看下一个句子。我们来看下面这个例段。

  【例段】

  Baekeland’s interest in plastics began in 1885 when, as a young chemistry student in Belgium, he embarked on research into phenolic resins, the group of sticky substances produced when phenol (carbolic acid) combines with an aldehyde (a volatile fluid similar to alcohol). He soon abandoned the subject, however, only returning to it some years later. By 1905 he was a wealthy New Yorker, having recently made his fortune with the invention of a new photographic paper. While Baekeland had been busily amassing dollars, some advances had been made in the development of plastics. The years 1899 and 1900 had seen the patenting of the first semi-synthetic thermosetting material that could be manufactured on an industrial scale. In purely scientific terms, Baekeland’s major contribution to the field is not so much the actual discovery of the material to which he gave his name, but rather the method by which a reaction between phenol and formaldehyde could be controlled, thus making possible its preparation on a commercial basis. On 13 July 1907, Baekeland took out his famous patent describing this preparation, the essential features of which are still in use today.

  【分析】

  我们发现这个段落是一个比较长的段落,来观察一下每个句子的主干:

  第一句: Baekeland’s interest in plastics began in 1885(Baekeland在塑料上的兴趣开始的时间)

  第二句: He soon abandoned the subject(他很快放弃这个学科)

  第三句: By 1905 he was a wealthy New Yorker(1905年他是个富有的纽约人)

  第四句: The years 1899 and 1900 had seen the patenting(这两年见证了…的专利申请)

  第五句: Baekeland’s major contribution to the field is the method(Baekeland的贡献是一个方法)

  第六句: Baekeland took out his famous patent(Baekeland申请了专利)

  以上就是这个段落的每个句子的主干,通过阅读这些单词可以快速浏览整个段落的大意——主要在讲Baekeland的个人经历发展。

  2.利用细节句标志词

  有些词出现意味着是对上一句的解释,那如果前一句你能够理解的话(并且又跟你找的出题点无关),那解释性的句子就可以略过不看了哦。那哪些词是细节句标志词呢?像表达举例的(for example/instance),表达解释的(that is to say, in other words),代词(人称代词、指示代词),引用别人的话,某些标点符号(破折号,括号)等。我们来看下面一个段落:

  【例题】

  1.Home medical aids

  2.Regular amounts of exercise

  3.Feelings of control over life

  4.Feelings of loneliness

  A.may cause heart disease.

  B.can be helped by hormone treatment.

  C.may cause rises in levels of stress hormones.

  D.have cost the United States government more than $200 billion.

  E.may help prevent mental decline.

  F.may get stronger at night.

  G.allow old people to be more independent.

  H.can reduce stress in difficult situations.

  【原文】

  The increasing self-reliance of many elderly people is probably linked to a massive increase in the use of simple home medical aids. For instance, the use of raised toilet seats has more than doubled since the start of the study, and the use of bath seats has grown by more than 50%. These developments also bring some health benefits, according to a report from the MacArthur Foundation's research group on successful ageing. The group found that those elderly people who were able to retain a sense of independence were more likely to stay healthy in old age.

  Maintaining a level of daily physical activity may help mental functioning, says Carl Cotman, a neuroscientist at the University of California at Irvine. He found that rats that exercise on a treadmill have raised levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor coursing through their brains. Cotman believes this hormone, which keeps neurons functioning, may prevent the brains of active humans from deteriorating.

  分析

  我们在这个段落的第一句话上找到了第一题的出题点,从而可以把第一题做出来(答案是G),在定位查找第二题的时候,我们继续看下文找“有规律的运动”这个表达。我们在第二句话上看到了for instance,说明第二句是对第一句的举例,因此第二句依然再说第一句的内容。第三句话我们看到以these(指示代词)开头,说明第三句话依然在讲前文的内容,这个段落总共四个句子,前面三个句子都在讲同一个内容,那么第四个句子就可以不用看了(因为英文中一个段落讲述一个主题)。在下一段第一句我们看到了第二题题干的替换词(daily physical activity – regular amounts of exercise),在这一段最后出现了第二题答案(E)。

  所以,通过观察这个段落中每个句子中的细节句标志词,可以迅速把握这个句子所述主题,发现与我们要找的下一题内容无关的时候,就迅速略过该句,从而达到快速阅读的目的。

  3.包含some的并列结构

  some是一个很有意思的小词,一个句子如果以some开头,那么这个句子跟后面的句子很哟可能就是并列结构,因此只需要读一个并列的句子即可猜测后面的并列所述内容。我们来看一个例题。

  【例题】

  Which part of some stepwells provided shade for people?

  【原文】

  Some wells are vast, open craters with hundreds of steps paving each sloping side, often in tiers. Others are more elaborate, with long stepped passages leading to the water via several storeys. Built from stone and supported by pillars, they also included pavilions that sheltered visitors from the relentless heat. But perhaps the most impressive features are the intricate decorative sculptures that embellish many stepwells, showing activities from fighting and dancing to everyday acts such as women combing their hair or churning butter.

  【分析】

  这道题目要求我们到原文找“提供给人们阴凉”这件事,然后看是“阶梯井的哪个部分”。当我们在看这个段落的时候,发现第一句有some开头,此时要有意识,后面有可能有跟其并列的分句或句子,在第二句看到了others这个单词,因此这段话的前两句确实是并列句。第一句看到Some wells are vast,可以知道这句话是描述一些阶梯井的“属性”(主系表结构中,表语体现主语的属性),所以第二句是描述另一些阶梯井的“属性”,而我们要找的是“提供阴凉”这个具体的事情,因此前两句就只需要阅读5个单词就可以迅速略过,速度是不是很快?

  在第三句的逗号后面,我们看到了定位内容的替换词(shelter – provide shade),因此这句话就是答案出处(pavilions)。

  总结一下,当大家看到some开头的时候,先到后面的文字看是否有跟其并列的词(some…some… and some ….; some … others…),如果有的话,只需要看第一个some所在的句子描述的内容即可,因为后面并列结构中描述的内容类别与第一个some是接近的,只是在说别的方面。通过这种方法可以快速把握句子所述内容。

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